For a woman, this 18-20% means that she works for free every fifth working day. At the same time, women have more daily expenses to look and meet society’s expectations: face, body, hair coloring, including gray hair.
Goods and services for women cost more. A typical example is the case of Gilette, a company that sold disposable machines for women 7% more expensive than men’s counterparts. A 2015 study in New York found that products labeled as “feminine” – from baby items to personal care items – were 42% more valuable than “men’s” items.
The world’s average annual income for women is $ 11,500, while for men it is $ 21,500, according to the World Economic Forum. Achieve equality in wages is predicted in 256 years – in 2277.
The gender pay gap, even in the European Union, is currently 14.1%.
So why do women earn less
On the one hand, this is due to the relatively low-paid areas in which they are most employed – education, health care. But it’s not just a specific area.
Paul England, a professor of sociology at New York University, analyzed US census data from 1950 to 2000. She found that greater involvement of women in a particular field led to lower pay in it. That is, employers devalued women’s work by setting lower pay for it.
Even in high-paying areas, women tend to work in lower positions. In the European Union, less than 8% of the leaders of leading companies are women. Obviously, this is not because women do not have the necessary knowledge or skills for leadership. Gender stereotypes about the role and place of women still prevail in society.
American researcher Michael Kimmel believes that women and men from childhood are prepared for certain roles and professions, and in companies men implicitly try to maintain a purely masculine atmosphere of the corporate hierarchy.
This is called the “glass ceiling” phenomenon: at some point, women face an invisible barrier in their professional activities. No matter how hard they work, they can’t go up the career ladder like men. In addition, stereotypes about the “purpose of motherhood” weigh on women. Employers, even if they do not directly ask about the family and children, mean that a woman will pay more attention and time to family and child care, and therefore cannot be effective in a responsible management position.
The “glass ceiling” can be broken by gender quotas. Yes, France has passed a law that introduces them to leadership positions in business.
The law requires all companies with more than 1,000 employees to have at least 30% of women among senior executives by 2027 and 40% of women by 2030. Failure to do so threatens companies with financial sanctions. Elizabeth Moreno, Minister for Gender Equality, is convinced that there will be women with sufficient experience and competencies in leadership positions.
If women, who make up half of the world’s working population, do not reach their full economic potential, the global economy will suffer. According to a report by the McKinsey Global Institute, the “best in the region” scenario, where all countries meet the pace of improving gender equality with the fastest growing country in their region, could add up to $ 12 trillion, or 11%, to 2025 annual GDP. This figure is equal to the current GDP of Germany, Japan and the United Kingdom combined.
Under the “full potential” scenario, where women play the same role in the labor market as men, $ 20 trillion, or 26%, will be added to world annual GDP by 2025. This is equivalent to the size of the combined economies of China and the United States today.
What in Ukraine
Ukrainian women are becoming more active in small business. According to Youcontrol, over the past 10 years, women have become entrepreneurs 1% more often than men. In 2020, the share of FOPs opened by women was 5% higher than that of enterprises opened by men. At the same time, the situation in big business is different.
Among the beneficiaries in the TOP-330 largest companies in terms of revenue for 2019, men are 16 times more than women. In only 11 of the 330 companies, the sole beneficiary is a woman, who makes up only 3% of the total number of companies.
These figures suggest that it is easier for women to develop their own, albeit small, business than to break through the “glass ceiling” in already developed companies. There are fewer obstacles for them, the main thing is self-confidence, the necessary knowledge and skills to implement the project.
The French-Ukrainian Chamber of Commerce and Industry invites women experts to its conferences. This is one of the opportunities to make women more visible in business. Also in the Chamber in 2018, a committee of business women was created, which included presidents and CEOs who have reached career heights.
Not only do we share experiences, but we also want to support women who are just starting out in business. To this end, they founded the contest “Created women “, which is held for the fourth time this year.